A dozen Republicans crossed party lines to support one of the measures, slightly more than previous votes but no indication that the patience of Mr. Trump’s own party was wearing thin.
“We say to them: ‘Take yes for an answer. This is what you had proposed,’” Ms. Pelosi said at a news conference. “Why are you rejecting it at the expense of the health, safety and well-being of the American people? Do you take an oath to the American people, or to Donald Trump?”
As the two sides grapple over who should be held responsible, the showdown has forced 800,000 federal workers to go without pay and placed federal benefits for millions more in jeopardy, with the fallout being felt across the country in ways large and small.
Even as Mr. Pence spoke, there were signs that the partial shutdown, now in its 20th day, would almost certainly become the longest in American history, after a 21-day lapse that began in December 1995. Mr. Trump tweeted that he would skip a planned trip to the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland, slated to begin Jan. 22, because of the impasse.
At the same time, the only glimmer of a bipartisan compromise being discussed in the Capitol appeared to die before it got beyond what Senator Thom Tillis, Republican of North Carolina, called “a skeleton.” A flurry of negotiations that began late Wednesday among Republicans, including several facing competitive re-election contests in 2020, crumbled amid White House opposition.
President Barack Obama created the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals program, or DACA, that allowed some young undocumented immigrants, known as Dreamers, to apply for work permits and deportation reprieves. But Mr. Trump rescinded the program in 2017, drawing a legal challenge currently before the Supreme Court.
Senators were also discussing including legal status for immigrants who were living legally in the United States under grants of Temporary Protected Status before Mr. Trump revoked them. At one point, Mr. Graham floated the idea of reopening the government on a stopgap, short-term spending measure while congressional committees work through the president’s border security and wall requests, working on a compromise through the regular legislative process.
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